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番外篇:哈利·波特与要命的特朗普


番外篇:哈利·波特与要命的特朗普
笔译、口译、同声传译

 

【剑桥期刊】番外篇:哈利·波特与要命的特朗普

 

作者:Diana C. Mutz, University of Pennsylvania

版权:© Cambridge University Press

图片:DORKLY

译者:杨婧娴

校对:朱小钊

导读&笔记:张鑫健

策划: 朱小钊 

 

Harry Potter and the Deathly Donald

哈利·波特与要命的特朗普

 

本文选自 Cambridge Core | 取经号原创翻译

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Similarities between Donald Trump and Harry Potter’s nemesis, Lord Voldemort, have not gone without notice during the 2016 campaign. Such comparisons could amount to little more than poking fun at a political opponent. More recently, however, even Trump supporters seem to be buying into the analogy, purchasing Trump posters featuring their candidate in front of an American flag as backdrop, with a quote from the Dark Lord himself: “There is no good and evil, there is only power, and those too weak to seek it”.

早在2016年美国总统大选时,就有人在唐纳德·特朗普 的身上看到了哈利波特的头号死敌——“伏地魔”的影子。 把特朗普比作“伏地魔”可能只 不过是政客间的一种相互戏谑而已,可是最近,就连特 朗普的支持者也开始这么认为了,在他们买的海报上,除了印 有特朗普站在美国国旗前的图案,还引用了“伏地魔”的一句话——“世上没有善与恶,只有掌 权者和无能的弱者。”

 

THE POLITICS OF HARRY POTTER

《哈利·波特》政治学

【剑桥期刊】番外篇:哈利·波特与要命的特朗普

 

The political messages of this wildly popular series have been hotly debated by literary critics. It has been attacked by both conservatives and liberals alike. For example, a review in the liberal Guardian described it as conservative and paternalistic. Other critics from the Left faulted it for being sexist, with patriarchal stereotypes and adherence to “the conventional assumption that men do and should run the world”. Still others critiqued it for promoting free market values and a “culture of competition” .

《哈利·波特》系列大受欢迎,其背后 的政治内涵也引发了文学评论家的激烈争论。不论保 守派还是自由派都对它加以抨击。例如,在偏自由主义的《卫报》上,有一篇评论评价《哈利波特》“保守且带有家长式作风”。其他左派批评家则拿“性别歧视”说事,认为它带有父权制的刻板印象,并且拘泥于“世界本 来就应该由男性主宰”的传统观念。 还有一 些人批评它助长了自由市场价值观和“竞争文化”。

Adherence[ədˈhɪrəns] n. the fact of behaving according to a particularrule, etc, or of following a particular set of beliefs, or a fixed way of doingsth依附; 坚持

 

Conservatives, meanwhile, have criticized the books and movies for promoting a liberal political agenda. As one critic put it, the stories “are, in fact, a ferocious critique of consumer society and the world of free enterprise”. When author J.K. Rowling suggested that Albus Dumbledore was gay, Bill OTReilly asked if it was part of a “gay agenda” to indoctrinate children: “By dubbing someone so respected, so talented and so kind, as someone who just happens to be also homosexual, she’s reinforcing the idea that a person’s gayness is not something of which they should be ashamed.” Although author J.K. Rowling denies having had a specific political agenda, as she further explained, “I wanted Harry to leave our world and find the same problems in the wizarding world…hierarchy…about the importance of group purity.” Lord Voldemort supports the eradication of mixed-blood wizards (so called “half-bloods”) as well as muggles (non-wizards), mudbloods (muggle-born wizards) and squibs (wizard-born non-wizards). During Voldemort’s time in power, people live in constant fear that they will be killed, either for having impure blood or for sympathizing with those who do. In Harry’s world, “werewolves were subject to discrimination as if they had AIDS”.

与此同时,保守派则批评《哈利·波特》系列书 籍和电影传播了自由主义的政治主张。正如一位评论家所说,这些故事“其实是 对消费者社会和资本主义的猛烈抨击”。在作者J.K.罗琳承认阿不思·邓布利 多是同性恋之后,比尔·奥特莱 利怀疑这有对儿童进行同性恋教育之嫌:“在J.K.罗琳笔下,这样一位德高望重、满腹才学、和蔼可 亲的人是一位同性恋,很显然 她是在强调一个人不应该以自己是同性恋为耻。”虽然J.K.罗琳否 认自己在传递某种政治主张,但她也进一步解释道,“我希望 哈利在魔法世界中也能发现和现实世界同样的问题:严格的等级制度、种族纯化(纯血统优越主义)等。“伏地魔”支持消灭非纯血巫师(即混血巫师),麻瓜(非巫师),泥巴种(麻瓜出身的巫师)和哑炮(巫师出身的非巫师)。在“伏地魔”掌权时期,人心惶惶。血统不纯,或是支 持混血的巫师很可能就会被杀害。在《哈利·波特》中,“狼人就 像艾滋病人一样备受歧视”。

 

In comparison, Donald Trump has called for a temporary moratorium on Muslim immigration.1 Further, Trump falsely claimed that American Muslims in New Jersey celebrated the attacks on September 11, 2001, and has suggested establishing a national database to register all Muslims.

再看看唐纳德·特朗普,他曾经呼吁暂时全面禁止穆斯林进入美国.1此外,特朗普 讹称新泽西州的美国穆斯林在2001年9月11日当天 曾庆祝恐怖袭击,并建议 在美国建立一个跟踪穆斯林的数据库。

Moratorium[ˌmɔrəˈtɔriəm] n. a temporary stopping of an activity, especially by official agreement(行动,活动等的)暂停,暂禁

 

 

Muslims are not alone in incurring Trump’s wrath. Trump has on several occasions stereotyped and insulted women, those with disabilities, and Asians, who according to his statement at an event in Iowa, dispense with introductory pleasantries to say, “We want deal!”He also has offended Mexicans and immigrants by describing those crossing the United States’ southern border as “rapists.” Trump attacked federal Judge Gonzalo Curiel, the judge presiding over a lawsuit against Trump University, for having Mexican ancestry

让特朗 普不满的不只是穆斯林。特朗普 曾屡屡出言不逊,表达其对女性、残疾人 和亚洲人的成见。在爱荷 华州的一场竞选活动中,他说亚洲人不懂客套,张口便是:“赶紧办正事儿!”他还把 北上进入美国的人称为“强奸犯”,惹怒了 墨西哥人和墨西哥移民。审理“特朗普大学”诉讼案 的联邦法官贡萨洛·库里埃 尔因为有墨西哥血统,也遭到 了特朗普的人身攻击。

(注:“特朗普大学”创建于2005年,以网络 授课方式向学生传授这名地产大亨的生财之道。实际上,它并不是一所大学,而是一家公司,甚至没 有获得大学办学认证。美国纽约州教育部2010年要求特朗普取消“大学”字样,因为这 一名称误导学生,而且违 反纽约州教育法。大批学生和检方控告“特朗普大学”欺诈,比如授 课教师并非广告中所称由特朗普亲自选拔,而是来自外包机构。“特朗普大学”起初提供免费课程,然后向 学生推销进阶课程,从近1500美元的“学徒”直至3.5万美元的“金牌精英”。按纽约 州司法部长埃里克·施奈德曼的话说:“这就是 典型的以低价为诱饵、兜售高价商品的伎俩。”)

 

Despite differing perceptions of the books’ prevailing ideology, there is a consensus surrounding at least three themes. These include 1) the value of tolerance and respect for difference; 2) opposition to violence and punitiveness; and 3) the dangers of authoritarianism. These same three themes are prominent in coverage of Donald Trump’s 2016 presidential campaign. Because Trump’s political views are widely viewed as opposed to the values espoused in the Harry Potter series, exposure to the Potter series may play an influential role in affecting how Americans respond to Donald Trump.

怎么看待《哈利·波特》系列书 籍中占主导地位的意识形态问题?尽管答案见仁见智,但在至少三个主题上,人们达成了共识。 包括:1)包容差异、尊重差异非常可贵2)反对暴力和惩戒 3)独裁主义后患无穷。 这也是2016年唐纳德·特朗普 在总统竞选中的三大突出主题。 由于人们普遍认为,特朗普的政治主张与《哈利·波特》所信奉的价值观相对立,因此阅读该系列后,美国人对唐纳德·特朗普 的看法可能会受到影响。

Espouse [ɪˈspaʊz] vt. to give your support to a belief, policy, etc拥护; 赞助

 

Tolerance of Difference

包容差异

【剑桥期刊】番外篇:哈利·波特与要命的特朗普

 

As Gerson and others have noted, “Tolerance is one of the main themes of the Harry Potter books.” The protagonists are quite mindful of discriminatory practices and the need to protect those vulnerable to unequal treatment. For example, Hermione forms a “Society for the Promotion of Elfish Welfare to improve life for oppressed house-elves. Likewise, Harry frees the house-elf, Dobby, from enslavement by Lucius Malfoy, a decision that later helps him win the battle of good over evil. Further, Harry is himself mixed “race” with a father who was a wizard and a mother born to muggle parents. When Potter’s young son expresses prejudice against Slytherin, the house of many of Harry’s opponents, he is quickly reprimanded by his father who tells him that the bravest man he ever knew was a Slytherin.

正如格 森和其他人特别提到的:“包容是《哈利·波特》系列重大主题之一”。主人公 相当在意人们歧视性的行为,也为遭 受不平等待遇的群体提供保护。比如,赫敏组建了一个“家养小 精灵权益促进会”,以改善 受压迫家养精灵的生活。同样的,哈利决 定把家养小精灵多比从卢修斯·马尔福 的奴役中解救出来,这后来 也帮助他战胜了伏地魔。此外,哈利本身也是一个“混血”,他的父亲是一名巫师,母亲则 出生在一个麻瓜家庭。斯莱特 林学院中有不少人和哈利是死对头,但当他 年幼的儿子对它有偏见时,哈利马上便教诲他,自己认识的人中,最勇敢 的一位就来自斯莱特林(即斯内普)。

Reprimand [ˈreprɪmænd] vt. to tell sb officially that you do not approve of them or their actions谴责; 惩戒; 责难

(注:1、家养小 精灵权益促进会,缩写是S.P.E.W.,是赫敏在1994年魁地 奇世界杯结束后,看到家 养小精灵受到了不公正待遇后成立的团体。大部分 家养小精灵把这当作是天经地义的,从没想 过改变自己的生活现状和地位。赫敏觉 得家养小精灵既得不到工钱又没有假期的情景非常残酷,于是开 始孜孜不倦地为改变他们的工作条件而努力。1998年,霍格沃 茨的家养小精灵也以一种极高的热情参加了霍格沃茨之战。

2、哈利波特的儿子Albus Severus Potter,名字的首字母ASP阿斯普就是一条蛇,而斯莱 特林学院的标志就是蛇。斯莱特 林学院的名声不是很好,因为英 国的大部分黑巫师都出自这里,比如汤姆·马沃罗·里德尔,即后来的伏地魔。食死徒 中的大部分也是从斯莱特林学院走出的。它们的 传统对手是格兰芬多学院。)

 

Opposition to Punitive Policies

反对惩戒政策

【剑桥期刊】番外篇:哈利·波特与要命的特朗普

 

The Harry Potter series also promotes non-violent means of conflict resolution. Although the stories themselves include plenty of violence and even death, these actions are perpetrated strictly by those on the side of evil: “Using violence freely and indiscriminately is a characteristic of bad people”. The wizard protagonists also avoid the use of curses for killing, for torture, and for the ability to control another. In contrast, Voldemort is willing to kill many times in order to split his soul into seven horcruxes and attain immortality; the ends justify the means. Harry Potter, on the other hand, refuses to kill, even in his final battle with Voldemort. Instead, Potter resorts to disarming his enemies as his major means of protection.

《哈利·波特》系列也 主张用非暴力手段的解决冲突。虽然故 事本身就充斥着大量的暴力甚至是死亡,但罪魁 祸首都是邪恶的一方:“只有邪 恶的人才会随心所欲地滥用暴力”。主角会魔法,但避免使用杀人,施酷刑 和控制他人的咒语。相比之下,“伏地魔”从不介意大开杀戒,他将自 己的灵魂分裂为七个魂器,永世不死,为达目的不择手段。另一方面,甚至在哈利与“伏地魔”的终极之战中,他也不肯取人性命。反之,他主要用“除你武器”来自我防御。

 

Donald Trump again aligns more with Voldemort than Potter, suggesting that “torture works” and that if elected president he will bring back waterboarding, which he has dubbed a “minimal form of torture.” As one headline put it, “Donald Trump is running to be America’s next top torture president.”2 He has even advocated killing the families of terrorists as a means of deterrence.

相比于哈利·波特,唐纳德·特朗普更愿意和“伏地魔”为伍。他认为“酷刑奏效”,还说自 己当选总统后将恢复水刑,并将其称之为“最轻的酷刑”。有媒体还把“唐纳德·特朗普 是美国最会施酷刑总统的候选人”作为头条新闻。2他甚至 支持用杀害恐怖分子亲人的方式来威慑他们。

(注:《纽约时报》、美联社等媒体报道,特朗普 打算签署总统行政命令,废除前 总统奥巴马颁布的两份总统令,一份是 关闭古巴关塔那摩美军监狱,另一份 是关闭中央情报局在海外监禁恐怖嫌疑人的设施和禁止违反军事规定对嫌疑人用刑,包括强制裸体、水刑、电击、火烫、性羞辱、假处决。特朗普 在接受美国广播公司采访时强调,他支持恢复水刑,理由是极端组织“伊斯兰国”手段残忍,“我们必须以牙还牙”。)

 

Trump’s campaign also has become associated with violence. Although Trump himself says this is merely a “media fabrication,”he has praised his supporters’ acts of violence against protesters at his rallies. Trump has made public comments encouraging his supporters and security personnel to punch, eject and “knock the crap” out of protesters, whom he views as “bad dudes.”

特朗普 的竞选活动也伴随着暴力。尽管特 朗普自己说这纯属“媒体捏造”3,但他确 实在竞选集会上赞许了自己的支持者对抗议者采取暴力的行为。用特朗普的话来说,抗议者们都是“坏家伙”,他公然 鼓励他的支持者们和安保人员用拳头解决问题,驱赶抗议者,再一顿猛揍。

 

Anti-authoritarianism

反对独裁

 

The protagonists in Harry Potter are united in their opposition to authoritarian characters in the novels. Of course, the most promi¬nent authoritarian in these stories is Voldemort. Readers have long noted similarities between Voldemort and Hitler, and Rowling herself has acknowledged these parallels. Likewise, Trump’s fas¬cist leanings have not gone unnoticed. Consistent with authoritarian principles, he promises order as well as dominance over all potential threats. As does Voldemort, Trump portrays himself as a strongman who can bend others to his will, be they the Chinese government or terrorists. His open admiration for Vladmir Putin—“at least he’s a leader’’ caused Joe Scarborough to point out that many of Putin’s opponents end up dead.

在《哈利·波特》系列小说中,主人公 们联手反对独裁者。当然,头号独裁者便是“伏地魔”。他和希 特勒的相似之处早已引起了读者的注意,也得到 了罗琳自己的承认。特朗普 的法西斯主义倾向同样也无法忽视。他承诺恢复秩序,镇压所有潜在的威胁,这与专 制主义别无二致。 不论对 中国还是恐怖组织,特朗普都和“伏地魔”一样表 现得像一个铁腕人物,所有人 都要对他惟命是从。他对弗拉基米尔·普京公开表示赞赏,认为“至少他是一个领导人”,这样的言论也让乔·斯卡伯勒评论道注:《早安,乔》(Morning Joe)的主持人,普京的 很多政敌都难逃一死。

 

Conclusion

结论

【剑桥期刊】番外篇:哈利·波特与要命的特朗普

 

Can Harry Potter defeat Donald Trump? Is his orange wig actually a horcrux that, if captured, could weaken the strength of his electoral base? Just as He-Who-Must-Not-Be-Named gains power from having others refer to him, is Trump’s appeal likewise a function of nonstop media fascination and repetition? These questions remain to be answered.

哈里·波特能击败唐纳德·特朗普吗? 特朗普 头上的橙色假发会不会其实是一个魂器,只要控制了它,就能打 压特朗普的竞选团队? 在《哈利·波特》中,所有巫师都不敢直呼“伏地魔”的名字,而是用“那个连 名字都不能提的人”等称呼来指代他,这无形中也加强了“伏地魔”的威慑力;同样地,媒体从不间断、天花乱 坠地报道特朗普,会不会 反而提高了他的支持率?这些问题有待回答。

(注:1、伏地魔 给自己的名字下了咒语,任何人提起这个名字,就会被追踪到,从而招致灾难,生命受到威胁。

2、有趣的是,梅丽尔·斯特里普和克里斯汀·斯图尔 特等名人在演讲或采访中批评特朗普时,都避免提及他的名字,许多美 国的活动家也支持这一立场。)

 

The messages of tolerance for difference and opposition to violence and punitive policies appear to be influential in altering Harry Potter readers’ policy views, as well as their support for Trump, even after controlling for their impact on policy attitudes.

《哈利·波特》传递出的“包容差异、反对暴 力和惩戒性政策”的观点颇具影响力,即使受到控制,无法全 然影响人们对政策的态度,但它们 依然影响着读者的政治观点,降低了 他们对特朗普的认同。

 

Perhaps most importantly, these findings raise the hope that Harry Potter can stop the Deathly Donald and make America great again in the eyes of the world, just as Harry did by ridding the wizard world of Voldemort. By the end of the series, in an obvious Christian analogy, Harry comes to accept the necessity of his own death for the sake of love. The underlying message is that love is stronger than death, thus loyalty and courage are required to resist the temptation to respond to aggressive tactics with still more aggression. If half-bloods, werewolves and others should be treated with respect and fairness as the Potter stories teach, so too should all human beings.

也许最重要的是,有关《哈利·波特》的这些 研究给人们带来了希望,或许就 像他为魔法世界除掉了“伏地魔”一样,哈利·波特能够阻止“致命的特朗普”,并让世 界重新看到美国的崛起。在小说结尾,哈利为爱毅然赴死,此举明 显带有基督教色彩。这里的潜台词是,爱比死亡更伟大,因此忠 勇之人必须抵抗诱惑,不以暴制暴。 若像《哈利·波特》所教导的,应该尊 重并平等对待混血巫师、狼人以及其他物种,那么对 待人类也理应如此。




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