当地时间2017年9月5日,特朗普下令废除DACA项目,全美80万“梦想生”面临未知命运。从修筑边境墙、颁布禁穆令,到如今废除DACA,特朗普 一直试图兑现选举时给出的承诺,维护强调美国优先、重视法 律与秩序的理念。此次总 统先生给予了国会6个月的 窗口期通过替代法案,以永久性地解决问题。因此当 前很难说此举到底是要废止DACA,还是推动DACA。

 

梦碎美利坚,80万年轻移民或被驱逐

 

 

译者:刘   璠

校对:刘   蕊

策划:倪凌晖

 

 

Trump Moves to End DACA and Calls on Congress to Act

特朗普废除DACA项目,并敦促国会采取行动

 

本文选自 The New York Times | 取经号原创翻译

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WASHINGTON — President Trump on Tuesday ordered an end to the Obama-era program that shields young undocumented immigrants from deportation, calling it an “amnesty-first approach” and urging Congress to pass a replacement before he begins phasing out its protections in six months.

华盛顿——本周二(译者注:2017年9月5日),特朗普 总统下令废除了奥巴马执政期间制定的保护年轻非法移民免受驱逐的项目,称其为“特赦优先法案”,并敦促 国会在该保护计划被逐步废除(即6个月后)之前给出替代法案。

 

amnesty /ˈæmnəsti/ noun (pl. -ies) [C, usually sing., U] an official statement that allows people who have been put in prison for crimes against the state to go free (对政治犯的)赦免,大赦

 

As early as March, officials said, some of the 800,000 young adults brought to the United States illegally as children who qualify for the program, Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals, will become eligible for deportation. The five-year-old policy allows them to remain without fear of immediate removal from the country and gives them the right to work legally.

美国有80万在童 年时期通过非法途径入境的年轻人符合童年抵 美者暂缓遣返计划(Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals)的条件。早在今年三月,就有官员称这80万人中 有人即将面临驱逐。该项政 策已经实施了五年,受益者 可以继续留在美国,不用担 心被立即驱逐出境,并获得 合法工作的权益。

译者注:Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals 2012年,奥巴马政府推出DACA计划,允许2007年以前进入美国的16岁以下 非法移民被暂缓2年遣返,且暂缓期限可以延长,期间可申请工作许可。这一人群被称之为“梦想生”(dreamer),约有80万人,在美国1100万非法 移民中的占比不足10%,以拉美裔为主。

 

Mr. Trump and Attorney General Jeff Sessions, who announced the change at the Justice Department, both used the aggrieved language of anti-immigrant activists, arguing that those in the country illegally are lawbreakers who hurt native-born Americans by usurping their jobs and pushing down wages.

司法部长杰夫·塞申斯(Jeff Sessions)在司法 部宣布了这项政策改变。特朗普 和他都引用了反对移民活动者们愤懑不平的说辞,认为非 法留在这个国家的人是违法者,他们抢走了就业机会,拉低了工资水平,损害了 美国本土人民的利益。

 

aggrieved /əˈgri:vd/ adj.2(law律) suffering unfair or illegal treatment and making a complaint 受害的;受委屈的

usurp/ju:ˈzɜ:p/ verb [VN] (formal) to take sb’s position and/ or power without having the right to do this 篡夺;侵权

 

Mr. Trump said in a statement that he was driven by a concern for “the millions of Americans victimized by this unfair system.” Mr. Sessions said the program had “denied jobs to hundreds of thousands of Americans by allowing those same illegal aliens to take those jobs.”

特朗普 在一项声明中称,这项不 公平的法律体系导致了数百万美国公民成为受害者,他这么 做的原因是出于对这些人的关心。塞申斯说:“该项目 让那些非法外侨抢走了本该属于美国人的工作机会,使得成 千上万的美国人找不到工作。”

 

Protests broke out in front of the White House and the Justice Department and in cities across the country soon after Mr. Sessions’s announcement. Democrats and some Republicans, business executives, college presidents and immigration activists condemned the move as a coldhearted and shortsighted effort that was unfair to the young immigrants and could harm the economy. 

就在塞 申斯宣布这个决定后不久,不仅是 白宫和司法部门前,全美上 下都爆发了示威游行。民主党 和部分共和党人士、企业高管、大学校 长和移民权益维护者们纷纷谴责该行为的冷血和短视,认为这 对于这些年轻移民来说极不公平,也会损 害美国经济发展。

 

“This is a sad day for our country,” Mark Zuckerberg, the Facebook founder, wrote on his personal page. “It is particularly cruel to offer young people the American dream, encourage them to come out of the shadows and trust our government, and then punish them for it.”

脸书创始人马克·扎克伯格(Mark Zuckerberg)在他的 个人网页上写道:“这真是 令美国悲伤的一天。先是给 予这些年轻人追逐美国梦的机会,鼓励他们走出阴影,相信政府,然后又惩罚他们,这太残酷了。”

 

Former President Barack Obama, who had warned that any threat to the program would prompt him to speak out, called his successor’s decision “wrong,” “self-defeating” and “cruel.”

前总统贝拉克·奥巴马(Barack Obama)早前说过,只要有 人威胁到该项目的实施,他就会站出来发声。如今,他将这 位继任者的决定描述为“错误且冷酷,并将弄巧成拙。”

 

“Whatever concerns or complaints Americans may have about immigration in general, we shouldn’t threaten the future of this group of young people who are here through no fault of their own, who pose no threat, who are not taking away anything from the rest of us,” Mr. Obama wrote on Facebook.

奥巴马在脸书上写道:“不管美 国人民对整个移民群体有什么担忧或抱怨,我们都 不应该去威胁这个年轻群体的未来。来到这 个国家并非是由于他们自身的过错,他们对 我们的国家没有威胁,他们并 没有从我们这里夺走任何东西。”

 

Both he and Mr. Trump said the onus was now on lawmakers to protect the young immigrants as part of a broader overhaul of the immigration system that would also toughen enforcement.

特朗普 和奥巴马都说过,如今保 护这些年轻移民的责任落在了法律制定者的身上。应当将 该项目作为更加广泛的移民体系改革的一部分。这些改革也会进一步强化执法

 

onus /ˈəʊnəs;ˈoʊnəs/ noun (usually the onus) [sing.] (formal) the responsibility for sth 职责;责任

 

But despite broad and longstanding bipartisan support for measures to legalize unauthorized immigrants brought to the United States as children, the odds of a sweeping immigration deal in a deeply divided Congress appeared long. Legislation to protect the “dreamers” has also repeatedly died in Congress.

制定措 施使这些童年来美的移民群体合法化的倡议,在两党内一直 有着长久广泛的支持,但在分歧严重的国会,赢得移 民协议却一直困难重重。国会曾 经多次未予通过保护“梦想生”的立法。

 

Just hours after the angry reaction to Mr. Trump’s decision, the president appeared to have second thoughts. In a late-evening tweet, Mr. Trump specifically called on Congress to “legalize DACA,” something his administration’s officials had declined to do earlier in the day.

民众对 于特朗普的决定无比愤怒。但就在数小时之后,总统先 生看上去好像改变了想法。在一条深夜推送中,特朗普 明确地呼吁国会“使DACA项目合法化”,而他的 政府官员在今天早些时候显然已经拒绝这么做了。

 

Mr. Trump also warned lawmakers that if they do not legislate a program similar to the one Mr. Obama created through executive authority, he will “revisit this issue!” — a statement sure to inject more uncertainty into the ultimate fate of the young, undocumented immigrants who have been benefiting from the program since 2012.

特朗普 同时告诫法律制定者,如果他 们不能制定出一项与奥巴马执政期间相似的项目并对其立法,他会“重新审视这个问题”——特朗普 的这个宣言无疑为这些自2012年以来 一直受益于该项目的年轻非法移民的最终命途增添了更多不确定因素。

 

Conservatives praised Mr. Trump’s move, though some expressed frustration that he had taken so long to rescind the program and that the gradual phaseout could mean that some immigrants retained protection from deportation until October 2019.

保守党 人对于特朗普的这个举动大加赞赏。尽管有 些人对于他居然用了这么长时间才决定停止这个计划表示了沮丧,并且逐 步废除政策就意味着在2019年10月以前,还有部 分移民会一直受到保护。

 

rescind /rɪˈsɪnd/ verb [VN] (formal) to officially state that a law, contract, decision, etc. is no longer valid 废除;取消;撤销 

 

The White House portrayed the decision as a matter of legal necessity, given that nine Republican state attorneys general had threatened to sue to halt the program immediately if Mr. Trump did not act.

白宫将 这个决定描述为法律上的需要。因为九 位共和党的州司法部长曾发出通牒,假如特 朗普没有采取行动,他们就 会起诉要求立即停止该项目。

 

Months of internal White House debate preceded the move, as did the president’s public display of his own conflicted feelings. He once referred to DACA recipients as “incredible kids.”

采取此项行动之前,关于是 否需要废除该项目的争论在白宫内部已经持续了数月,而总统 先生在公众面前表现出的自相矛盾的情感也是如此。特朗普曾经说过,DACA政策的受益者们是“优秀的孩子”。

 

The president’s wavering was reflected in a day of conflicting messages from him and his team. Hours after his statement was released, Mr. Trump told reporters that he had “great love” for the beneficiaries of the program he had just ended.

总统先生举棋不定的态度反 映在了这一天他和他的团队发送的自相矛盾的信息上。就在声 明发布的几个小时后,特朗普告诉记者,他对于 这项他刚刚废止的项目的受益者们充满了爱。

 

waver /ˈweɪvə(r)/ verb [V] to hesitate and be unable to make a decision or choice 踌躇;犹豫不决;举棋不定

 

“I have a love for these people, and hopefully now Congress will be able to help them and do it properly,” he said. But he notably did not endorse bipartisan legislation to codify the program’s protections, leaving it unclear whether he would back such a solution.

他说,“我对这些人有着爱,同时希 望国会能够采取妥善的措施去帮助他们。”但是值得注意的是,他并未 对两党提出的将该项目立法的做法表示支持,因此尚 不明确特朗普是否会支持这样一个解决方案。

 

endorse /ɪnˈdɔ:s/ verb [VN] to say publicly that you support a person, statement or course of action (公开)赞同,支持,认可

 

Mr. Trump’s aides were negotiating late into Monday evening with one another about precisely how the plan to wind down the program would be executed. Until Tuesday morning, some aides believed the president had settled on a plan that would be more generous, giving more of the program’s recipients the option to renew their protections.

周一晚上,特朗普 的助手们就具体应当如何终止该项目一直协商到深夜。直到周二早上,一些助 手们认为总统先生已经选定了一项更为宽容的计划,可以使得更多的DACA项目受益者能够选 择持续受到保护。

 

But even taking into account Mr. Trump’s contradictory language, the rollout of his decision was smoother than his early moves to crack down on immigration, particularly the botched execution in January of his ban on travelers from seven predominantly Muslim countries.

但是即 使考虑到特朗普自相矛盾的语言,相较于 之前他制裁移民的措施,这项决定的推行要顺利许多,特别是 他在今年一月提出的对7个穆斯 林为主的国家实行旅游禁令的愚蠢做法。

 

In addition to the public statement from Mr. Sessions and a White House question-and-answer session, the president was ready on Tuesday with the lengthy written statement, and officials at the Justice and Homeland Security Departments provided detailed briefings and distributed information to reporters in advance.

除了塞 申斯的公开声明和白宫的问答环节,总统先 生在周二还准备了冗长的书面声明,司法和 国土安全部的官员们则准备了详细的介绍文件,并提前 向记者透露信息。

 

Mr. Trump sought to portray his move as a compassionate effort to head off the expected legal challenge that White House officials said would have forced an immediate and highly disruptive end to the program. But he also denounced the policy, saying it helped spark a “massive surge” of immigrants from Central America, some of whom went on to become members of violent gangs like MS-13. Some immigration critics contend that programs like DACA, started under Mr. Obama, encouraged Central Americans to enter the United States, hoping to stay permanently. Tens of thousands of migrants surged across America’s southern border in the summer of 2014, many of them children fleeing dangerous gangs.

白宫官 员预计可能会以一种直接且极度混乱的方式结束这个项目,这将给 法律的执行带来极大挑战。特朗普 则努力将自己的举动描述成为一种试图阻止这种情况发生的富有同情心的做法。但是他 同时也谴责了这个政策,认为该 政策使得来自中美洲的移民数量“激增”,其中一些人成为了像MS-13这样的 暴力组织的成员。一些移 民批评者谴责奥巴马时期生效的像DACA这样的 计划促使了更多中美洲国家的人来到美国并希望永久居留。2014年夏天,成千上 万名移民突然涌向美国南部边境,其中很 多都是躲避危险团伙的孩子。

 

Sarah Huckabee Sanders, the White House press secretary, indicated that Mr. Trump would support legislation to “fix” the DACA program, as long as Congress passed it as part of a broader immigration overhaul to strengthen the border, protect American jobs and enhance enforcement.

白宫新闻秘书萨拉·赫卡比·桑德斯(Sarah Huckabee Sanders)指出,为了加强边境,保护美 国人民的就业机会和加强执法,只要国 会同意将该项目作为更广泛的移民体系改革的一部分,特朗普将会支持“完善”DACA项目的立法。

 

“The president wants to see responsible immigration reform, and he wants that to be part of it,” Ms. Sanders said, referring to a permanent solution for the young immigrants. “Something needs to be done. It’s Congress’s job to do that. And we want to be part of that process.”

桑德斯称:“总统希 望看到可靠的移民改革,也希望参与其中”。她指的 是出台一项对于这些年轻移民的永久性解决方案。她说:“必须采取措施。这是国会的工作。同时我 们希望能成为其中的一员。”

 

Later on Tuesday, Marc Short, Mr. Trump’s top legislative official, told reporters on Capitol Hill that the White House would release principles for such a plan in the coming days, input that at least one key member of Congress indicated would be crucial.

周二晚些时候,白宫高 级立法事务主管马克·肖特(Marc Short)告诉国会山记者,未来几 天之内白宫将会公布制定该计划应当遵循的原则。至少一 名国会关键人物认为这些原则是至关重要的。

 

“It is important that the White House clearly outline what kind of legislation the president is willing to sign,” Senator Marco Rubio, Republican of Florida, said in a statement. “We have no time to waste on ideas that do not have the votes to pass or that the president won’t sign.”

弗罗里 达州共和党参议员马克尔·卢比奥(Marco Rubio)说:“白宫能 够清楚地给出总统先生乐意签署的立法的大纲是很重要的。我们没 有时间浪费在不能够赢得投票或者总统不会想要签署的想法上。”

 

The announcement was an effort by Mr. Trump to honor the law-and-order message of his campaign, which included a repeated pledge to end Mr. Obama’s immigration policy, while seeking to avoid the emotionally charged and politically perilous consequences of targeting a sympathetic group of immigrants.

宣布废除DACA计划是 特朗普为兑现自己在选举时给出的承诺——维护法律与秩序——所做出的努力。在选举中,他反复 承诺会终止奥巴马的移民政策,但会尽 量避免引起情感上的谴责和政治上的动荡,因为将 有些移民人群作为目标确实令人同情。

 

perilous /ˈperələs/ adj. (formal or literary) very dangerous 危险的;艰险的

 

Mr. Trump’s decision came less than two weeks after he pardoned Joe Arpaio, the former Arizona sheriff who drew intense criticism for his aggressive pursuit of unauthorized immigrants, which earned him a criminal contempt conviction.

特朗普 作出该项决定是在他赦免了乔·阿尔皮奥(Joe Arpaio)不到两周之后。这位前 亚利桑那州官员由于对非法移民采取了激进的抓捕行为而招致了猛烈的抨击,并被判刑事藐视法庭罪

 

The blame-averse president told a confidante over the past few days that he realized that he had gotten himself into a politically untenable position. As late as one hour before the decision was to be announced, administration officials privately expressed concern that Mr. Trump might not fully grasp the details of the steps he was about to take, and when he discovered their full impact, would change his mind, according to a person familiar with their thinking who was not authorized to comment on it and spoke on condition of anonymity.

过去几天内,这位不 喜欢承担责任的总统告诉一位密友,他意识 到自己进入了一个政治上无法立足的境地。根据一 名熟悉白宫官员想法但无权评论此事的匿名人士透露,就在该 决定宣布的一小时之前,政府官 员曾私下表示出对于特朗普的担忧。他们担 心总统先生可能并没有全完领悟到他即将采取的这项决定的全部细节,当他认 知到这些行动会造成的全部影响的时候,他可能会改变主意。

 

untenable /ʌnˈtenəbl/ adj. (formal) (of a theory, position, etc. 理论、地位等) that cannot be defended against attack or criticism 难以捍卫的;站不住脚的;不堪一击的

 

But ultimately, the president followed through on his campaign pledge at the urging of Mr. Sessions and other hard-line members inside his White House, including Stephen Miller, his top domestic policy adviser.

但是最终,总统还 是在塞申斯和其他白宫强硬分子(包括他 的高级国内政策顾问斯蒂芬·米勒Stephen Miller)的主张下,兑现了 他在选举时给出的承诺。

 

The announcement started the clock on revoking legal status from those protected under the program.

这项声明一经颁布,对于项目受益者来说,取消合 法身份这件事就进入了倒计时。

 

Officials said DACA recipients whose legal status expires on or before March 5 would be able to renew their two-year period of legal status as long as they apply by Oct. 5. But the announcement means that if Congress fails to act, immigrants who were brought to the United States illegally as children could face deportation as early as March 6 to countries where many left at such young ages that they have no memory of them.

官员称在2018年3月5日之前 或当日合法身份到期的DACA项目受益者,只要在2017年10月5日之前申请续期,就可以获得2年的身份延长期。但是,这项声 明意味着如果国会未能履职,这些童 年时期非法来美的移民最早将于2018年3月6日开始 面临被遣返回国的境地。由于少小离家,对于原 本的国家他们毫无印象。

 

Immigration officials said they did not intend to actively target the young immigrants as priorities for deportation, though without the program’s protection, they would be considered subject to removal from the United States and would no longer be able to work legally.

移民官声称,他们并 没有特意将这些年轻移民作为驱逐的首选目标。虽然计划终止后,这些年 轻移民就会被列入驱逐名单中,也不能继续合法工作。

 

Officials said some of the young immigrants could be prevented from returning to the United States if they traveled abroad.

官员说,如果一 些年轻移民出国旅行,可能会 被禁止再次入境。

 

Immigration advocates took little comfort from the administration’s assurances, describing the president’s decision as deeply disturbing and vowing to shift their demands for protections to Capitol Hill.

移民权 益保护者对于政府给予的保证并没有感到宽心,他们将 总统的决定形容为极度混乱,并发誓 他们将转而向国会继续提出诉求。

 

Marielena Hincapié, the executive director of the National Immigration Law Center, called Mr. Trump’s decision “nothing short of hypocrisy, cruelty and cowardice.” Maria Praeli, a recipient of protection under the program, criticized Mr. Sessions and Mr. Trump for talking “about us as if we don’t matter and as if this isn’t our home.”

美国国 家移民法律中心执行董事玛莉丽娜·辛卡(Marielena Hincapié)表示,特朗普的决定“无异于伪善和残酷的懦夫行径。”该项计 划的受益者玛利亚·普雷利(Maria Praeli)对塞申 斯和特朗普的这一决定表示谴责,认为“他们把 我们说得仿佛我们无足轻重,仿佛这 里不是我们的家园。”

 

hypocrisy /hɪˈpɒkrəsi/ noun (pl. -ies) [U, C] (disapprovingbehaviour in which sb pretends to have moral standards or opinions that they do not actually have 伪善;虚伪

 

The Mexican foreign ministry issued a statement saying the “Mexican government deeply regrets” Mr. Trump’s decision.

墨西哥 外交部发表声明称,“墨政府 对特朗普总统的决定深表遗憾。”

 

As recently as July, Mr. Trump expressed skepticism about the prospect of a broad legislative deal.

就在今年7月,特朗普曾表示,他对广 泛立法协议的前景抱有疑问

 

“What I’d like to do is a comprehensive immigration plan,” he told reporters. “But our country and political forces are not ready yet.”

特朗普告诉记者:“我想要实行的是全面的移民计划