• 联系我们
  • 联系电话: 400-629-1995 / 24小时值班电话13911395074

与法庭 口译员打交道要知道的十件事


                                                          2015-12-20   09:30    作者:    来源: 国译翻译

 

By Carmel A. Capati, Wisconsin Court Interpreter Program Manager
 
卡梅尔 A 卡帕蒂,威斯康 星州法庭口译项目经理
 
The demographics of Wisconsin are changing. Immigrants from Somalia and Latin America can be found working in turkey processing plants in Barron and in dairy farms in rural Buffalo County. Wisconsin ranks third in the nation for its Hmong population, while refugees from Bhutan, Myanmar, and Iraq are the most recent arrivals to our state. Given this population shift, the legal system has seen a dramatic increase in the need for interpreter services. Below are 10 recommendations for practicing attorneys to consider when working with court interpreters.
 
威斯康 星州的人口结构正在发生变化。你可以 看到来自索马里和拉美的移民在巴隆的火鸡加工厂或是布法罗乡村的奶牛场工作。威斯康 星州拥有的苗族人口数量在美国排名第三,而来自不丹,缅甸和 伊拉克的难民是最近前来定居的人士。鉴于这种人口转变,法律系 统对翻译服务的需求急剧增加。以下是 执业律师与法庭口译员打交道时需要知道的10件事:
 
1. Being bilingual is not enough to ensure the quality of a court interpreter. Don’t make the common mistake of assuming because someone asserts he’s bilingual that he’s qualified to be a court interpreter. Interpreting is difficult. Legal interpreting is even more difficult and requires continuous practice combined with experience and training. Attorneys should inquire about an interpreter’s educational background, courtroom experience, training, or certification she may hold. The Wisconsin Supreme Court’s Director of State Courts Office established a Court Interpreter Program six years ago, which has overseen certification of interpreters throughout the state. Whenever possible, try to use a certified interpreter if one is available. Certified interpreters have demonstrated their interpreting and language skills by passing a rigorous oral examination used by almost 40 states around the country.
 
1、掌握双 语并不意味着就可以胜任法庭口译员的工作。不要想当然的认为,因为有 人声称掌握两门语言就有资格成为法庭口译员。口译不是件容易的事,法律口 译更是难上加难,需要不断的实践,并将经 验和训练相结合。律师应 当询问口译员的教育背景,法庭经验,培训情况,以及持 有的资格证书情况。威斯康 星州最高法院的办公室主任6年前成 立了法庭口译项目,用以监 督整个州的口译员资格。只要有可能,尽量雇 佣经过认证的翻译。认证译 员可以确保合格的口译与语言技能,因为他 们都通过了在美国近40个州举 行的一项严格的口语测试。
 
2. Attorneys don’t have to rely on personal referrals to locate court interpreters. The Court Interpreter Program maintains a roster of interpreters, available on the court’s Web site, for more than 25 different languages. The roster has certified interpreters in the following languages Spanish, American Sign Language (ASL), German, Deaf ASL, Russian, Vietnamese, Mandarin, Hmong, Lao and French.
 
2、律师不 必通过个人推荐去找法庭传译员。法院口 译项目拥有一个口译员名册,在法院 的网站上即可查到超过25种不同 语言的译员名单。名册包括以下语言:西班牙语,美国手语,德语,聋人手语,俄语,越南语,中文普通话,苗语,老挝语和法语。
 
3. Don’t ask interpreters to provide “word-for-word” interpretation. Interpreters interpret meanings and concepts. They do not provide word-for-word or literal interpretation, nor do you want them to do so. An interpreter told me the story of when he was asked to interpret during a deposition. When he arrived, opposing counsel ordered the interpreter to “translate all the words directly.” The interpreter responded that he normally interprets the meaning of what is said, to which the attorney retorted, “No! I want the exact meaning of the words!” so the interpreter agreed. A question was asked, “What were you doing in the parking lot” The interpreter rendered the question into Spanish, and the non-English speaking deponent answered, “Estaba manejando mi mueble.” The interpreter said, “I was driving my furniture.” Irritated, the attorney asked what furniture meant. The interpreter told him the speaker meant, “I was driving my old junker.” People from Mexico use the word “mueble” (which has a l
 
iteral translation of “furniture”) to mean “junker” or “old car.” But since the interpreter was instructed to interpret the exact meaning of the word, he interpreted the word literally and not in the context the word was used.
 
3、不要要求口译员提供“字词到字词”的口译。口译员 翻译的是意思和概念。他们不 提供字词到字词或字面上的翻译,你也不 想让他们这样做。一名口 译员曾对我讲过他被要求口译证词的事。当他到达时,对方律师要求口译员“直接翻译所有的字词。”口译员回答说,他通常翻译的是意思,对方律师反驳说:“不!我想要 每个词的确切含义!”于是译员同意了。有人问:“你在停车场干了什么?”译员将 问题翻译成了西班牙语,不会讲 英语的证人回答说:“Estaba manejando mi mueble”。翻译说,“我在开着我的家具。”对方律师恼怒起来,询问“家具”是什么意思。译员告 诉他发言者的意思是:“我在驾驶我的老爷车。”墨西哥人用“mueble”这个词来表示“老爷车”,但它的字面意思却是“家具”。但由于 口译员被要求翻译每个词的确切含义,他只好 使用字词到字词的形式,而没有 按上下文来进行翻译。
 
4. Court interpreters should abide by the Code of Ethics for Court Interpreters. If you are working with an interpreter who is unfamiliar with SCR Chapter 63 the Code of Ethics for Court Interpreters, you should be concerned this person has not been properly trained. Qualified court interpreters are professionals who will follow this Code, which includes keeping privileged communication confidential, representing their qualifications accurately, and maintaining neutrality.
 
4、法庭口译员应遵守“法庭口译员道德准则”。如果与 你一同工作的翻译对于最高法院第63章“法庭口译员道德准则”不熟悉,你要认 识到这个人应该没有受过专业的培训。合格的 法庭口译人会遵循这一准则,其中包 括对特许交流通讯的保密,准确表现本职职责,以及保持中立等。
 
5. Don’t ask interpreters to be attorneys. Court interpreters do not “go over” legal documents or “explain” legal concepts. They interpret while the attorney reviews legal forms or explains the law. One interpreter reported an assistant district attorney asked her to go over the plea questionnaire and waiver of attorney form with several non-English speaking pro se defendants. He directed her to review the penalty charts so she could explain them. Interpreters are not attorneys. Asking them to engage in this type of work is unethical and unfair to both the non-English speaker and the interpreter.
 
5、不要让 口译员做律师该干的工作。法庭口译员不会“检查”法律文件或“解释”法律概念。他们在 律师审查法律文本或解释法律时做口译的工作。一名口译员报告说,有位助 理地方律师让她与几个不会讲英语的被告一起来审查辩护调查表和弃权书。他指示 她阅读处罚图表以便可以清楚解释。口译员不是律师。要求他 们从事这类工作,对于非 英语为母语者和口译员本身都是不道德和不公平的。
 
6. Clarify abbreviations and minimize legal jargon. Legal proceedings are filled with abbreviations and jargon (PSIs, GALs, OARs and “probation holds”). While certified interpreters will likely be familiar with the terms, try not to use them, if possible, and say the entire phrase.
 
6、讲清缩 略语并减少法律术语。法律诉 讼充满了缩略语和术语(例如 PSIs, GALs, OARs 或“probation holds”)。尽管合 格的译员有可能了解这些术语,但尽量不要使用它们,如果可能的话,使用完整的表达形式。
 
7. Be mindful of how you pose questions through an interpreter. As a general rule, when talking through an interpreter, the more straightforward the question, the better. Leading questions and questions posed in the negative are challenging for an interpreter particularly for rarer languages. While it is impossible to eliminate this format of questioning, attorneys should strive for simplicity in speech when an interpreter is used.
 
7、要了解 该如何通过口译员来提出问题。作为一般规则,当通过口译员讲话时,问题越直接,效果越好。诱导问 题和反面问题对于译员来说都是一种挑战,特别是 对于罕见的语言来说。虽然无 法完全避免使用这种质问形式,但律师 应在使用口译员时尽量让自己的讲话简洁清楚。
 
8. Don’t ask interpreters not to interpret something.
 
8、不要禁 止口译员翻译某些话。
 
Interpreters have informed me about attorneys who say something and then immediately instruct the interpreter, “Don’t interpret that.” Asking interpreters not to interpret something is asking them to violate their Code of Ethics. Interpreters are required to interpret everything. If you don’t want something interpreted, don’t say it.
 
一些口译员告诉我,某些律师讲了一些话,然后立即指示译员“不要翻译这些。”要求口 译员不去翻译某些话就是要求他们违反他们的道德准则,口译员 被要求应该翻译全部内容,如果你 不想某些话被翻译出来,那就不要说出口。
 
9. Expect most interpretation during a court proceeding to occur simultaneously. Generally, simultaneous interpreting means the interpreter is talking at the same time as the speaker with some lag time. Expect most interpreters to simultaneously interpret during courtroom proceedings. During testimony of a non-English speaking witness, the interpreter will use the consecutive mode, whereby interpretation will occur after each question and answer.
 
9、了解法 庭诉讼中经常会使用同声传译。通常来说,同声传 译是指口译员在发言人讲话的同时将话翻译出来。在法庭 诉讼中大多数口译员会采取同声传译的形式。在非英 语为母语的证人作证词时,译员将 会使用连续传译,即译员 在每个提问和回答后进行翻译。
 
10. Wisconsin statutes allow parties to object to an interpreter for good cause and take into consideration any delay arising from the inability to locate a qualified interpreter. If an attorney has valid concerns about an interpreter appointed by the court, alert the judge. Wis. Stat. section 885.38(6) allows a court to remove a qualified interpreter for good cause and section 885.36(7) states the delay resulting from the need to locate and appoint a qualified court interpreter may constitute good cause to toll time limits.
 
10、威斯康 星州法规允许当事人以正当理由对口译员提出异议,或因为 不能找到合格的译员而要求法庭延期。律师如 果对法院指定的译员有合理的关切,可以告知法官。威斯康星州第885.38(6)项规定 允许法院以正当理由撤换律师,第885.36(7)项规定 允许在规定时间范围内以为寻找任命合格译员而延期审理案件。





友情链接:    k8彩乐园注册   蚂蚁彩票   澳门彩票app网址   欢乐彩计划   足彩任九场